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Glossary for Her Cycle of Transformations & related documents


NAMES, including other-than-English terms for the term Goddess

Terms and expressions for the Concept of Deity.
see also Concept of Deity
href {Compilers note: Where Dame, or other general title, is sometimes associated with a particular Goddess, they will be referred to in Her Cyclopedia as forenames, or surnames, rather than titles, so it may be understood Her proper name is prefixed by the forename, as in Dame-Habondia, or Dea-Arduina; or suffixed by the surname. The proper name alone will be found in the index to avoid constant repetition except where the general title, or forename, is so emphatically associated with a proper name, or epithet, as to have become a proper name in itself.}
Dame French to English
Devi Hindustani
Hime Japanese
Hina Polynesian (see Hina linguistic note).
Lady English from Old-English
Madam English from French
Potnia Assyrian? Boeotian?
See also Sumero-Babylonian Nin.
Dea, DA1, Goddess
Latin: a term used by the Romans to signify. . .? Alternate meanings are sometimes offered such as: Divine, Divinity. The plural is: Deae, as in Deae-Matres.
Domina, D0MEN1, Lady, Mistress
Latin. Origin of Dame.
n. - 1. A term used to characterize the nature of a person, or thing. 2. An adjective or descriptive phrase that comes to form part of or to substitute for a person's name or title. ... A word or phrase that describes, characterizes, or serves as an appellation.
adj. a title, phrase or grammatical form conveying respect, used especially when addressing a social superior.
n. 8. A formal appellation attached to a person or family by virtue of office, rank, hereditary privilege, attainment, or as a mark of repect; especially, such an appellation as an indication of nobility. 9. A descriptive appellation; epithet.
n. a name or title. [Middle English appellacioun, from Latin appelllatio, from appellare, to appeal.]
name, n. 1. A word or words by which any entity is designated and distinguised from others....[Middle English name, nama. Latin nomen, (noun comes from this source). Greek onoma, onuma.] Synonyms: name, designation, denomination, title, appellation, nickname, sobriquet, cognomen, moniker. Name is the the general term among these related words.
A designation
is a name given expressly to classify according to distinguishing characteristics.
A denomination is also a categorizing name and is applied to persons or things, often religious groups or monetary units, having a close relationship.
Nin-, `Lady'. This is apparently the Sumerian (or Babylonian, haven't quite figured out the distinction) general title for female deities. Though usually translated as `Lady' or `Mistress', it may mean something closer to `Goddess', as does Devi to the Hindus, Deae to the Romans, Thea, to the Greeks, and so forth. There is confusion among the scholars concerning the deities whose names begin with Nin (which also include some male divinites, Ninurta, for example and Ninigiku-Ea). One such confusion is that some render the names broken by hyphens, and others do not. Rather than cross reference each name both ways, I've thought it best to list them all as hyphenated (ie emphasising, the appellation aspect of Nin-, even though there are some I have not come across in this form.
A title, applied to persons, indicates specific rank or position, and generally connotes distinction and respect; applied to things, such as literary or musical works, it is a form of proper name.
An appellation
Nectar of the Gods
See Hyades, To Whom Sacred:
is a name, other than a proper one, that describes or characterizes, generally in pictorial terms, and that gains currency more through use than through a formal act of designation.
A nickname
is an appellation with informal, sometimes hummorous, overtones.
A sobriquet
is an especially humourous or picturesque nickname.
Ancient Egyptian term for forces of nature?
-onë, -ona
According to Robert Graves, this is [ Greek?] a word element signifying Queen. But see Anna Linguistic Note:
aegis. Greek [Grolier gives EJYS as pronunciation, I've always thought of it as AGYS].
In Greek mythology, the aegis was a shield associated with Zeus, who was called "the aegis bearer," and with the goddess Athena. Homer described the aegis as a shaggy breastplate bordered with serpents. The tasseled aegis of Athena, constructed of goatskin, was set with the fearful head of MEDUSA, the gorgon. New Grolier Multimedia Encyc. Some say it originiated as Anath's goat-skin apron hung with shorn penises".
aegis. Egyptian.
The imprecise term aegis refers to a collar-like necklace which was regarded as a symbol of protection. In the Book of the Dead there is a spell for the "collar of gold which is placed around the neck of the transfiguered spirit on the day of buriaal". These collars are often decorated with the head of a falcon or a uraeus. The placing in position of the collar is a symbolic expression for being encompassed by the arms of the god. . . . Collars with animals heads, (ie divine symbols) above them also adorn the prow and stern of the divine barques. Jewellery collars with the head of a god of Goddess are also called an aegis. . .Source: Lurker GSAE.
Akka, 1K1, {Woman}. Swedish.
The meaning given with uncertainty {} is based on found meanings given for Swedish Goddess names which include the term? element? Akka. But it is sometimes translated as 'lady'. It appears to me to be a term for a concept which elsewhere, in other languages, is more often translated as 'Goddess'.
Akko, 1KO, Lady. Finno-Ugric.
Apparently the Finno-Ugric form for the Swedish Akka
Amphictyonic League Greek.
Something that Demeter took Her title of Amphictyonis from.
Ankh Egyptian.
Egytian symbol of life, carried {or worn} by many {all?} deities.
The original meaning of the ankh is still debatable. Gardiner suggests it was a sandal-strap, or it may be a magic knot. {Based on the idea that there was a mutual influencing of language between Egyptian and Greek, consider Greek ankhein, to squeeze, embrace.}The hieroglyphic sign means 'life' ('nh) and as a symbol it points to divine, i.e. eternal, existence. Therefore it is a recurrent attribute of the deities who hand it to the king. Air and water were the vital elements, for which reason they can be circumscribed by the use of the ankh, as when a divinity holds the ankh before the king's nose, giving him the 'breath of life', or when streams of water in the form of ankhs run over the king during ritual purification. As a symbol of an imperishable vital force the ankh was used on temple walls, stelae and elsewhere; it is particularly evident in friezes of objects usually in the region of the feet, hence the fact that people have seen in it the image of a sandal-strap. This sign, also called the crux ansata, entered the symbolism of the Coptic Church because of its cruciform shape. Source: Lurker GSAE 27.
Antipathes. Greek.
Leprosy curing stone. Sacred to Leucippe, and Spartan Orthia, Upright. The sole prerogative of Leprea, Scabby, an alternate name for Alphito, was that of causing and curing leprosy. For Her too, one might suppose the antipathes stone sacred. Marpessa is another Goddess associated with inflicting and curing leprosy.
Apsu, Babylonian.
An ocean conceived of as encirling the earth. EncyBrit v8 788.
Aralu. Babylonian.
Gathering place of the dead, situated near the confines of the Apsu. Encyc Brit. v8 788,


ba. Egyptian.
. . . [Sometimes referred to as the soul, ba may be more accurately described as] a psychic force. In the earliest religious texts anonymous deities were simply described as ba. Then the word became employed as a synonym for the manifestation of a deity . . . In connection with the king the concept ba referred to his authoritative, indeed his divine power. At the end of the Old Kingdom the term ba was applied to all people. Then it became the possessor of imperishable powers. Tomb paintings and papyri of the New Kingdom show the ba in bird form hovering above the mummy of the deceased or sitting on the trees planted round the tomb. Mortuary spells, being magically effective, were supposed to make it possible for the soul to "assume any forms it wishes." Source: Lurker GSAE 31.
birth-brick, Egypt.
Two bricks were often used as footrests for women when squatting to give birth. . . They were believed to determine one's destiny. . . The birth-brick was personified by the Goddess Meshkhent, and whilst the child was yet in the womb She fashioned its ka and announced its destiny at birth. . . Besides anthropomorphic depictions the Goddess was also showen in the form of a birth-brick with a woman's head. Source: Lurker GSAE 33.
biwa, Japanese.
A stringed musical instrument. The Goddess Benzai-Tennyo is frequently imaged with one.
Carcheia Goblet. Probably not Greek.
A gift to Alcmene, Mother of Heracles, from Zeus. She accepted it believing it to be from Her consort Amphitryon, victory spoil: "Telebus's legacy from his father Poseidon". Graves GMv2 87,
chiton, Greek
A tunic worn by women and men in ancient Greece. AHDEL
Greek: Xi-theta-upsilon-nu-iota-omicron-sigma. `Of, in, or beneath the earth'. Xi-theta-omicron-nu-iota-alpha-iota theta-epsilon-alpha-iota (Chthoniai theai): Demeter and Persephoneia. Xi-theta-omega-nu, (Chthon): `Earth', as a Goddess. Liddell & Scott; OED.
Concept of Deity
A piece of vocal music in which the original words have been changed. {This term may have been coined by Claude Duvall of the Noh Oratorio Society 1980-1990, San Francisco.}

Dame, DAM, Lady. Variant: Dam.
Alternate meanings: Mistress, Sovereign, Queen.
Linguistic Note: Middle English from Old French (and French) dame, 'lady', from Latin domina, 'lady, mistress'; ultimately from Indo European deme, 'house, household', as though 'She Who runs {dominates?} the household'. Doublet: dam, 'a mother'; chiefly applied to animals, but not excluding the human animal. Related English words: dame, damsel, domicile, domestic.
This term, implying veneration, is used as an honorific for many Goddesses of European origin, and practically amounts to a synonym for Goddess. Since Christianity had made the recognition of female divinity a sin, the use of an everyday respectful title may have disguised references to Her from those who were unfamiliar with Her proper names, and made it possible to speak of Her, if only between mothers and young daughters; perhaps thus She remained vigorous in the folk heart.
Devi, Goddess. Hindustani.
See also Devata, which too, is translated as Goddess Gramadevata Linguistic Note.
Dodona. Greece
The most ancient oracle (of Zeus) in Greece, built by Deucalion after the flood. It was centered on an oak tree. Kravitz WWGRM 83.
the Dreaming, the Dreamtime. Australia. An Arnhem Land word for the dreaming is wongar.
In the traditional religious system of the Aborigines, human beings were believed to be a part of nature, intimately associated with other living things. This relationship underlined the concept sometimes called the Dreaming, of which totemism is one aspect. The Dreaming refers to the creative period when mythic spirits were believed to have shaped the land, bringing into being various species and establishing human life. These beings were thought to live on eternally in spirit form and to have left tangible evidence of their presence in the shape of certain prominent land forms considered sacred. Religious ritual was pervasive in traditional Aboriginal life. Although presided over by males, it involved all members of the community. Some rituals, including elaborate funeral customs and initiation rites, served to renew the participants' ties with the Dreaming, considered a continuing stream from which life came. Source: "Aborigines, Australian" by Ronald M. Berndt, New Grolier's Multimedia Encyclopedia.


Any group or set of nine. In Goddess terms triple-triple.
Erim, erim, 6RYM and Eris, eris, 6RYZ, from "her or him" and "hers or his", with "or" removed, and the "h's" dropped to make pronunciation easier.
Holladay Paganism coinage. Pronoun introduced by the compiler, See also Shehe.


Germanic forename for Goddesses, as in Frau-Berchta. German frau, 'a married woman' from Old High German frouwa, 'Lady'. {But I dont have the etymology}.


Galaxy. Greek.
From Galaxias (kukclos), 'milky (circle)', from gala, 'milk'.
gessa. Irish.
A type of Celtic spell. Linked with Greine To Whom Sacred
Golden Fleece Greek.
In Greek mythology the Golden Fleece was the treasure wrested from a dragon in Colchis by Jason and the Argonauts, after Medea had drugged the dragon. Jason and Medea then fled, carrying the fleece on Jason's ship, the Argo. Some ancient writers, for example, Strabo,, believed that this fleece was covered with alluvial gold. Others held that what Jason sought was not gold, but amber. Apollonius of Rhodes thought it was a ram's fleece used as a priest's costume, or the sign of Aries the Ram, or some other sacred cult object. After the Argo's return this prize was spread on the bridal couch of Jason and Medea, thus sanctifying their royal union. Article by Norma L. Goodrich from New Grolier's Multimedia Encyclopedia.
Graine. Irish (Gaelic?)
"a house open to the sun", perhaps meaning a group of standing stones. Irish. Qv Etain. Source: Monaghan BGH 100. Also: Grian, with the meaning "Sun" is given as the name of an Irish Goddess (Greine) for the sake of Whom Irish women lived in open homes called: "sun houses" or griannon after the Goddess. Source: ibid 124.
granno-mio. Irish
A definition is to be found under Granno To Whom Sacred. (Granno is linked with Greine).
harpe. Greek.
the iron sickle which Gaia drew from Her bosom for the castration of Uranus. I expect there is a relationship with this word and the Harpyiai, see Their Linguistic Note.
A three person, or headed? statue of Hecate.
Hetera Greek.
Hierodule, pl. hieroduli. Greek.
from hieros, 'sacred, holy' < Indo European base *eis-, to move violently, excite > Sanscrit *isnati, (he) sets in motion, Latin ira, ire, Old Norse eisa, to rush on; + doulos, slave.
a temple slave, dedicated to the service of a Deity. [LL hierodulus < Gr hierodoulos]
Hippocrene, The-Horse-Well. Greek,
An inspirational spring which rises on Mount Helicon. Sacred to Leucippe.
hula. Hawaiin.
See Laka, To Whom Sacred.


ka, Egypt.
The ka was a term for the creative and preserving power of life. In ancient times it referred particularly to male potency, hence its phonetic resemblance to the word ka meaning 'bull', but it had soon come to mean intellectual and spiritual power. The hieroglyph ka with hands raised in a defensive attitude was a magical gesture designed to preserve the life of the wearer from evil forces. The ka was born with a person. . . The ka accompanied a person like a kind of double, but when the person died the ka lived on. Source: Lurker GSAE 73.
Kaaba, variant transcription Ka'bah. Arabic.
See Goddess Menat iconography for now.

I find Greek (or perhaps Cretan) Leto, and Greek Leda, both translated as 'Lady', and Lycian (or Cretan) Lada, translated as 'Woman'. The fact that the etymology of the English word 'lady' is said to be uncertain seems interesting in view of the similarity of the Greek words, their given translations, and English 'Lady'. It's said to come from Middle English lafdi, from Old English, hlaefdige, composed of hlaef, or hlaf -- 'loaf' + dige kneader, therefore perhaps 'Dough-kneader', 'Kneader of dough', with the then possibly related English words: loaf, dough, dairy.} This seems a pleasing meaning for the word Lady, and metaphorically suited to Goddess creativity, with its magical connotations {the rising of the dough, magical as the growth of the child in the womb}.
Land of Women, The
[I think this is a reference to Fairy Land, but cant find source of the quote. Irish. Qv Etain. Is it a translation of tir nan og
a term for the deities of Haitian Voodoo. "The Voudoun religion is primarily African in origin, transported to the West Indies with the slave trade hundred of years ago. A complex set of rituals, beliefs and symbols, Voudoun is used by the Haitian people to interpret the mysteries of humanity's existence and relationship to the spiritual and living world. Most Haitians have also embraced Catholicism -- the upper classses almost totally abandoning Voudoun in favor of Christianity." Quoted from pamphlet The Nature of the Loa: Some Symbols of Haitian Voudoun flags.
Lotus Sutra
Kuan-Yin Ching, see Kuan-Shih-Yin To Whom Sacred.
mada. Australian Aborigine, Arnhem Land.
A linguistic group, one of the most important units in the social organisation of eastern Arnhem Land. Source: Groger-Wurm AABP.
Pele is sometimes called Madam Pele. Madam here being used as a term of respect with the Middle English meaning of 'My Lady', from the Old French Ma Dame.
The title Madonna, My-Lady, seems to particularly belong to Mary. For example: Madonna-of-the-Sheaves
. The translation: "My-Lady", is a deferential title used in direct address of English feminine nobility, and as such appropriate for addressing Goddesses. Like the Our in Our-Lady, the My here can signify
fermented honey
Menait. See Hat-Hor Symbols.
Mudra, Mudras. Hindustani.
mudra vara The mudra of granting boons, (Bhairavi makes this mudra).The hand is held forth in front of the body with the palm upwards and horizontal, the fingers together, and the thumb crossing the palm to the fourth finger. Woodroffe, p24
mudra abhaya The mudra of dispelling fear, (Bhairavi makes this mudra) - The hand is held up with the fingers and thumb in the same positions with the palm towards the spectator. Woodroffe, p24
Vyakhya mudra (Bhairavi makes this mudra). According to the Sabda Kalpadruma: vyakhya = vivaranam (description), or grantha (book), and also commentary, but also denotes a mantra. Woodroffe p25.
oenophorus Greek.
wine-jar, symbol of Oenone.
Ogdoad. Egyptian
According to the Hermopolitan theology eight divinities ruled before the creation of the world. These personified the primeval forces of chaos: Naunet and Her consort Nun, symbolizing the primeval waters; Hehet and consort Hek, the infinity of space; Keket and Her consort Kek, the original darkness; and Amaunet and Her consort Amun, invisibility. As powers of the beginning of things they received the form of chthonic beasts; the Goddesses frogs, the Gods snakes (sometimes the other way about). Sometimes the eight ancient divinites were repesented as apes greeting the rising sun; in this case the sunrise was thought to be symblic of the creation of the world. There was a center for the Ogdoad in western Thebes in the small temple at Medinet Habu. Lurker GSAE 91.
Olympians. Greek
Of, or pertaining to the greater divinities of the ancient Greek pantheon, whose abode was Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece situated about ten miles inland from the Aegean Sea, between Thessaly and Macedonia. AHDEL
The English translation of the title of the French Notre-Dame: 'Our-Lady', is also intimately associated with Mary. This is almost certainly because the term had been, or has been, a title of Goddesses long before Mary, de-divinized, absorbed many of Their ancient names and titles. Our-Lady is, for example, one of the possible meanings of the name of Goddess Hera[?\cyc\h\hera], qv. The French variant: Notre-Dame, Our-Lady, is used not only as a alternate name for Mary, or as a forename for Her, with various distinguishing epithets, see Our-Lady-of... next, but also as a forename for other Goddesses. I think in this usage "Our" is an endearment as of someone held close to one's heart, just as is the My of My-Lady.
This phrase often introduces a place-name, as in Our-Lady-of-Guadalupe. and as such is often a way of conflating Mary with some older Goddess. In the case of Our-Lady-of-Guadalupe, the older Goddess is Tonantzin. See also Our-Lady above.
Palladia Greek,
See Pallas To Whom Sacred:
Palladium Greek,
See Pallas Linguistic Notes:
patera. Greek
A bowl, or dish. According to Greek tradition the first bowl was modeled from Helen's breast. Neumann GM 123.
peplus noun, Variant of peplos. plural. peploses also pepluses. [Greek.]
A loose outer robe worn by women in ancient Greece. Also called peplum.
An earthernware wine-jar (with a lid), of the largest kind. Source: IGEL.
adj. Acting to defend agains or prevent something, especially disease. --n. A prophylactic medicine, device or measure. From Greek prophulaktikos. from prophulassein, to stand on guard before (a place), take precautions against..



rangga. Autralian Aboriginal, Arnhem Land.
secret-sacred emblems which must not be seen by uninitiated men or any women. Source: Groger-Wurm AABP. Also described as:, yam-sticks (which sometimes represent the children the Djanngawul Sisters brought forth, but are sometimes phallilc symbols) Source: uncertain.


sabattu, full moon. Assyrian?
See Kilili-Mushritu.
Sacred Prostitution and Temple Prostitution
Find a good source. For now see Shayba To Whom Sacred. A sacred-marriage ritual involving mortals, and so-called temple prostitution was practised in honor of Persian Anahita -- by high-born women before marriage. The union of sexes at Her sanctuary and in Her name, by re-enacting the divine marriage -- perhaps every woman symbolized Herself -- ensured fruitfulness of the soil, increase of humanity and live-stock).
Saint, English.
Many a Saint, as we now know, is a mortalized pre-Christian divinity. This term too, with its meaning: 'worthy of veneration', and its derivation from Latin sanctus, 'sacred', may perhaps be considered equivalent to Dame, and other terms expressing the Goddess concept.
Shehe, shehe, $EHE. English.
A pronoun introduced by Holladay Paganismr to 1) with first character capitalized, signify an androgynous, or hermaphroditic deity, 2) with first letter lower-case (except at sentence beginnings), signify a person whose gender is unknown: "When the doctor arrives, will shehe be wanting some tea?". This pronoun is supplimented by erim, and eris where these alternatives are appropriate.
shamanka. shaman. n. [Russian, from Tungus šaman, Buddhist monk, shaman, from Tocharian samane, from Prakrit samana, from Sanskrit sramanah, from sramah, religious exercise.]
Shamankas are women who have acquired the power to travel in spirit worlds bearing requests and commands to supernatural beings on behalf of human clients, and so they are able to help and heal. Shamans are men who have developed similar powers.
Shichifukujin. Japanese.
The seven deities of Happiness, qv Benzai-Tennyo.
sidh. fopho $E,
an Irish barrow, or hillock, which is a door to the underground "realm of inexhaustible splendour and delight, according to the... Celts... There were apple-trees there always in fruit, and one pig alive and another ready roasted, and the supply of ale never failed." Source: Squire Celtic Myth and Legend 136.
Shintai. Japanese, Shinto.
See symbols of Amaterasu-Omikami.
it appears to me (fw) that sidhe is the plural of sidh.
Sibylline Books.
A number of oracular manuscripts consulted regularly by the ancient Romans and thought to have been written by the Sibyl of Cumae. (c)1995 Zane Publishing, Inc.(c)1994, 1991, 1988 Simon & Schuster, Inc. It may be the case that the utterances of the Sibylla were carefully recorded in what came to be known as the Sibylline books.
In Greek mythology, Tartarus was variously the lowest region of the underworld or synonymous with the underworld (HADES), where Uranus banished his rebellious sons, the Cyclopes, and according to Homer, Zeus later confined the defeated Titans. According to one creation myth, based on Hesiod, Tartarus was born of the union of air and mother earth; the giants, of the union of Tartarus and earth. A grove of black poplars along the ocean stream marks the entrance to Tartarus, which is bounded on the west by the Styx. In the Greek Old Testament, Hades, a translation of the Hebrew Sheol, refers to the place of departed souls. According to Robert Graves, Hecate is probably the real ruler of Tartarus.
Groelier: Tartarus; Hades.
The Bed of Diarmaid and Gr inne
Linked with Greine To Whom Sacred.
thyrsus. Greek
A staff tipped with a pine one and twined with ivy, represented as carried by Dionysius, Dionysian revelers, or satyrs. AHDEL
tir nan og fairy land.
See Bean-Sidhe and sidh.
Tuatha dé Danann.
"Thus we may," says Graves on page 64 of The White Goddess, "without historical qualms, identify Danu of the Tuatha dé Danaan, who were Bronze Age Pelasgians expelled from Greece in the middle of the second millennium, with the pre-Achaean Goddess Danaë of Argos...p 64". And later these same Tuatha dé Danann having come to Britain from Greece by way of Denmark, (to which they had given the name of their Goddess), invaded Ireland, and overthrew the Formorians who were then living there. (Graves WG 93).
uraeus, pl. uraei. Egyptian.
The Greek word Uriaos may have originated in the egyptian world meaning 'She-Who-Rears-Up'. The uraeus was the serpent which the king wore on a diadem, or from the Middle Kingdom, on his crown. It was represented as a rearing cobra with inflated hood. This emblem, worn on the head, it has been suggested, may be traced back to the forelock worn by the tribes of ancient Libya. Others regard the snake as the symbolic animal of the prehistoric kingdom of Buto in the Delta, the Goddess of which, Wadjet, sat in uraeus form on the king's brow. As the protector of the pharaoh She was supposed to spit fire at his enemies from Her place on his forehead. The uraeus was a symbol of kingship and was, therefore, worn by the royal gods Horus and Seth. The flame-spitting serpent which averted all evil was defined as the fiery eye of the sun god, Re. Because Hathor was thus equated with the sun god She could therefore be evoked as the uraeus as, for example, in the Coffin Texts. Tefnut in Her special function as Goddess of fire, Wepes, wore a uraeus on Her head. Source: Lurker GSAE 123. {Tefnut is also identified by others as the uraeus Herself. FW}
Vahana, vehicle, bearer. Sanskrit?
Linguistic Note: (the first a has a line across the top of it), fopho: V*H1N1. The bird ora nimal (occasionally a man) on which a Jaina, Hindu or Mahayana Buddhist deity rides or is associated with. The vahana is "a duplicate representation of the energy and character of the" deity. A Mesopotamian concept, (circa 1500 BCE or earlier), probably brought to India by traders in post-Vedic times. Source: stutley HDH 316.
Victoriola, Victory-in-the-hand.
The figure of Victory held in the outstretched hand of Roma and Constantinopolis.


The Old Religion. Source: Aradia, or the Godspel of the Witches, Charles Godfrey Leland.
Xoanon, fopho: ZW6-@N0N. Greek.
A primitive, rudely carved image or statue (originally wood), especially of a deity. COED.
yoni. Hindustani
The female generative organs....Much folklore, mythology and symbolism is associatied with the gererative organs in preshistoric India and Western Asia, and in parts of Europe....When depicted alone the yoni is referred to as a chalice (argha) or water-vessel (jalahari), sometimes shaped like a conch sell, or represented by a downward pointing triange. In southern Indian villages religious life was generally devoted to the worship of local divinites gramadevatas), regarded as the manifestation of the Great Goddess, Whose "icons are everywhere simple stone images of the female organ of generation". Stutley HGH 351.

worked on: December, May, July 1995
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