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[to Whom the thirteenth day of August, day 225, is dedicated]
Geography/Culture: Etruria: Palermo.
Linguistic Note: Although the Etruscan language as written in historic times (though still undeciphered azov 1995), is recognized as connected with eastern Mediterranean languages of a non-Indo-European, pre-Hellenic character, the Indo-European roots kel-, and kwel-, are of interest. It would seem likely the language as spoken in Etruria was influenced by early Greek, and that Latin was influenced in turn by Etruscan. In this regard the following seem suggestive. Greek kappa-upsilon-lambda-alpha, (kula), the parts under the eyes, is related to Latin cilium, eyelid, (providing the related English word: supercilious). Could Her name mean something like She-Who-Closes-the-Eyelids. The Greek element kappa-upsilon-lambda, (cul, or cyl), is also found in words refering to drinking cups (which of course are round) and to rolling, revolving (rolling along; wrestlers rolling about in their struggle; rolling in mud or dust -- as horses, or as in grief; the rolling movement of snakes; time -- which rolls along, with such related English words as: calyx, cylinder). Suggesting a possible meaning of She-Who-Completes-the-Round-of-Life. Or the element cul- might be related to the element cult- which in several Latin words bears such associated meanings as: knife, wound and care, found in the related English word: cultivate.
Description: Young and fair winged Goddess of death; Guardian of the Gate of the Underworld.
To Whom Sacred: snake; burning torch.
Iconography: She wears crossed baldrics, short skirts and hunter's boots.
Geography/Culture: Etruscan. A small shrine to Her found at Bolsena.
Linguistic Note: it is tempting to suppose Her name might be related to Latin silens, 'silence', (silentes, 'the dead'), but the Latin C is a fopho K, and I suppose the Etruscan C is also. See linguistic notes on Culsu, above.
Description: Goddess of fate. One of the Di Involuti, by Whose permission Jupiter was allowed to hurl his terrible, most destructive, third and final thunderbolt.
Iconography: a headless antefix with Her name on the plinth has been found. The image is now in Florence.
Linguistic Note: the val- element comes from the Indo-European root wel- meaning 'to tear', 'pull', 'wound', from which comes Norse valr, 'slain', and the related English words: convulse, revulsion, vulnerable (but apparently not: valiant; valorous; value, etc.). The element -kyria meaning: 'chooser' comes from the Indo-European root geus- 'to taste', 'choose', from which, via Old English ceosan (the e has a line above it) come English: choose, and choice.
Description: Multiple Goddess of valorous death; Brides of heroes slain in battle; Those Who daily ride forth over the battle-fields of the world to carry the soldiers deemed worthy of it off to Folkvang or Valhalla; Beautiful golden-haired Maidens with dazzling white arms; (some say) Those Who bestow the kiss of death on heroes about to be carried off.
To Whom Sacred: horse; the color white (Their horses are white as are Their robes in Valhalla); mead (which They serve to the heroes in Folkvang and Valhalla); shining armor (which They wear in the battlefield); the number 3 (for some say there are three Valkyries and some say three times nine).
Male Associate: they are the personal attendants of Odin, ----.
Geography/Culture: West-Mediterranean: Etruscan.
Description: Winged Female spirits, generally young and fair, wearing crossed baldrics, short skirts, and hunters' boots; Those Who are present at battles or at the slaughter of prisoners: Those Who meet and accompany the dead on the road to Hades.
To Whom Sacred: snake; burning torch.
Male Associate: They are companions and helpers of Charon, ----, ferryman of the Underworld.