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Ertha, Earth.
[to Whom the eighth day of July, day 189, is dedicated]

Geography/Culture: Scandinavian.
Linguistic notes: {maybe the above form of Her name is pronounced =ð1, or =31}. Some English variants of the meaning: eorthe, horthe, irthe, urth(e), yerth(e), herthe, yorth. Old Saxon erthe. Middle Dutch aerde, erde. Cognate with Dutch aarde. Swedish, Danish jord. Gothic airtha. Greek epsilong-rho-alpha (era), 'ground'. English related words: earth; hearth (the ground on which a fire is made); aardvark. {And I would have thought: yard (somehow related to Swedish, Danish jord), area (somehow related to the Greek era).
Description: Goddess of earth and fertility.
Sources: MP.BGH/137; GN.BB/65, 118, 152, 158, 301.
Fjorgyn, Mountain.

Geography/Culture: West Gothonic tribes.
Linguistic note: Gothic {or Gothonic?} Fairguni, Old English fyrgen, 'mountain'.
Description: Hermaphroditic earth; earth Mother, earth father; SheHe Who is the ground, the land, the soil, the country.
Male associate: Odin, is Her male aspect. Source: Branston GN 112, 152.
Hretha, Earth-Lady.

Geography/Culture: Anglo Saxon.
Linguistic notes: see Ertha.
Description: Eponym of the third month of the Anglo Saxon year.
To Whom is sacred: February to March (perhaps to the equinox). Source: Branston LGE 51.
Jorth, Earth-Mother.

Description: Goddess of earth and fertility.
Male associate: consort/father, Odin, ----, as sky father; son, Thor, ----.
Source: Branston GN 117-8.
Nerthus, Earth.

Geography/Culture: Anglian group of Gothonic tribes, and other tribes along the west coast of the Baltic. Denmark, especially the North Sea regions.
Description: Mother earth; Goddess of fertility; She Who interests Herself in the human affairs and rides among the tribes; She Who abhors iron.
To whom are sacred: grove; domestic animals (especially a white cow or ox); the number 7 (the number of German tribes who accompanied the journey of Her ship-wagon); Frothi's-peace (which comes upon the land when She rides among the people); ship-wagon (drawn by kine, or oxen, in which Her image was processed among the people); boar-masks; the Ingwaz rune.
Festival: in spring She processed among Her people and Her image was bathed.
Male associate: in some way (perhaps by a sex change) connected with Njordr, ----, god of fertility, for the Scandinavian Njord is a masculinization of Nerthus. Perhaps originally a divine Shehe. Her consort (and the name of Her priest) was Ingwaz, (possibly just Ing), {God-of-Heroes}, god of earth. Sources: Branston GN 131, 132, 134, 161, 301; Thorsson FHRM .
printed July 1990 -- worked on July 1990; August 1991; June 1995.
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