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Kupala, {She-Who-Bathes}.
[to Whom the eleventh day of August, day 223, is dedicated]

Geography/Culture: Russian, Slavonic, Baltic Serbs.
Linguistic Note: Her name is derived from the root verb kupati, 'to bathe.'
Description: Goddess of joy, fire (perhaps the sun), mid-summer, vegetation, water, its healing powers and the secret language of trees; Remover of evil.
To Whom Sacred: fern (the Fire-flower of Kupala, believed to flower once a year at mid-night on Kupala's Night); razryv-trava, 'the herb which breaks' (ie saxifrage); plakune-trava, 'the tear-weed' (ie. purple loose-strife); birch (especially in Her festival, when it is cut and stripped of all but a crown of upper branches -- on these occasions it is sometimes called Marena, 'Winter' or 'Death'); straw-effigies of Herself; floral crowns and garlands; cock (sacrifice on Her festival); ritual bathing; dew (especially The Dew of Kupala, gathered in the night of Her festival, with which Her worshippers ritually wash themselves).
Festival: June 23 and June 24 (ie. traditional mid-summer's Eve, and mid-summer's day).

Source: GB.JF/369-70; GMC'84; NLEM/295-6.
worked on: July 1995; August and all x-refs checked & in -CYCDEX.DOC 1991; July 1990.
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