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Alternate meanings: Strong-Ones, Hungry-Ones.
[to Whom the tenth day of February, day 040, is dedicated]
Geography/Culture: Pre-Hellenic Greek. Some say they were
first venerated in Arcadia. Later their worship spread throughout Greece.
Linguistic Note: The Romans translated this as Furiae, 'the
Description: Winged triple Crone Goddess of the underworld,
fate and [creative anger]; Those Who are older than any God; the Black
Goddesses; Implacable defenders of the rights of women; Curses from one's
Mother for having wronged Her; Harbingers of Divine Vengeance and sudden
destruction; Swift Bitches; the Dogs of Hades; Pursuers of those who flout
blood kinship and the deference due to it; Those Who represent supernatural
intervention and justice for crimes that are not dealt with by humanity;
Those Who sit on the threshold of the guilty one's house and cannot be
evaded; Children of Eternal night; Daughters of the Earth and the Shadow;
Those Who pursue Their vengeance even to the Underworld tormenting the
guilty in Tartarus.
During patriachal times They were especially concerned to punish offenses
against society such as perjury, violation of the rites of hostpitality
and above all the murder of relations. People who appear to have been sent
to be curses to others are called Erinyes.
To Whom Sacred: narcissus flower (perhaps meaning the three-lobed
blue iris, worn as chaplets when placating Them); bat; snake (their hair
sometimes "bristles with serpents"); horse; dog; (offerings of
black-sheep, white-doves, water sweetened with honey); dolphin; blood;
the colour black; brass-studded whips; torches; scourges; sickles.
Iconography:They have dogs heads, bats wings, and serpents
for hair and ascend from the underworld to pursue the wicked. Experienced
by guilt-ridden conscience as black-robed Gorgons (qv Gorgones) with blood-dripping
eyes, and claw-like nails. Compiler's
Note: Images of single Erinyes, have snakes wrapped around their arms similarly
to the Cretan snake Goddess. The Eumenides, when imaged, are shown holding
a snake just behind the head, much as seen in other representations of
the Cretan snake Goddess. Since it is believed Cretan society was matriachal,
it seems possible the Cretan snake God dess was the predecessor of the
singular Erinys. Though perhaps known by some more euphemistic name!
Their Triple form was first mentioned by Euripedes.
Their individual names from later writers are as follows:
Alecto, Unrestful. Megaera,
Envy. Tisiphone, Avenger.
- The Ceres, (Who
are linked with Car), are also called "the Dogs of Hades".
- Also called Chthoniai-Theai,
Who are linked with Zemelo.
- Variant spelling Erinnyes.
- They were developed from the singular Goddess Erinys,
- In patriachal times they were given the euphemisic title: Eumenides,
- Roman translation: Furiae, Furies. Qv. for other Roman
- Daughters of Gaia, Earth, qv.
- Their assistants were the Harpyiai,Swift-robbers,
- Triple aspect of, or companions of: Hecate She-who-works-from-afar,
- Also called the Maniae, Mad-Ones. [Pre-Hellenic Greek].
Source: GEL; Guirand GM 128, 129 (& image); Monaghan
BGH 96-7; Encyc Brit v9 745a; Graves GMv1 125; ibid GMv2 73, 82, index;
IGEL 314; MAW 243; Kravitz WWGRM 91-2, 193.
Geography/Culture: Pre-Hellenic Greek. Description:
Snakes in Her hair and a whip in Her hand.
See also Goddess Anthology under Alec-to.
Dirae, DYRI, Ill-boding-ones.
Alternate meanings: Curses, Fearful-Ones.
Linguistic Note: Derived English word: dire.
They were known in heaven as the Dirae, and in hell as the Furiae.
- Perhaps the Dirae were likened to the Greek Eumenides.
- And the Furiae, `Furious-Ones', as They were also called, matched
the Greek Erinyes.
Alternate meanings: Avenger, The-Angry.
Epsilon-rho-iota-nu-upsilon-sigma, 'the Fury'.
of retribution and vengeance; She Who punishes trespassers against matriachal
law; Scolding Mother; She Who is Consciouness of guilt.
- Perhaps origin of Demeter's Arcadian title, Erinys,
- She became the triple Erinyes.
- Irish Eriu,
may have derived Her name from this source, if not Her character.
Source: IGEL 314; Walker WEMS 282.
Erinys, =RYNÜS, The-Angry.
Geography/Culture:Greek: Arcadia: Thelpusa.
Mare Goddess of earth and the underworld; She Who rages in grief
over the loss of Her Daughter.
To Whom Sacred: black-mare;
horse (perhaps as corn-spirit, perhaps as sacred to chthonic deities);
horse-head mask (worn by Her priest when he performed the ceremony of beating
the Infernal Spirits with rods).
Male Associates: son, the horse Arion , ---, by rapist
- Alternate name: Alcippe,
Mighty-Mare, Who is linked with Augralides.
- Mother of: Despoina,
Who is linked with Persephoneia.
- Alternate spelling Erinnys.
- The Erinyes may have been the
origin of this title or vis-a-versa.
- Sur-Title of Demeter,
- After purification Demeter-Erinys became Demeter-Lousia,
- Thought by some to be the etymological equivalent of Hindustani
Saranyu, Who is
linked with Chaya.
Source: EBv7/980-2; Graves GMv1/74, 129, 167,
237; Graves GMv2/30; Guirand GM 105.
Geography/Culture: Greek: Arcadia, Thelpusa.
- Conceivably, by meaning of Her name, related to Kupala,
- Title of Demeter-Erinys,
The-angry after She'd bathed in the river Ladon.
Alternate meanings: Good-Ones, Well-Disposed-Ones,
Benevolent-Ones, possibly also Solemn-Ones.
Geography/Culture: Greek. They have a sacred cave on the
Athenian Acropolis. Under the name Eumenides, the Erinyes were honored
and had a temple in Athens near the Areopagus.
Description: Originally triple Goddess of the underworld
and human reproduction; Providers of edible plants; Triple Goddess of steadfast
To Whom Sacred: kerm-oak groves; kerm--berries (ie: the cochineal
insects from which the Greeks extracted scarlet dye); the colour scarlet
(and/or purple); torch.
Festival: Their rituals were held
- A title adopted for the Erinyes,
during patriachal times when they ceased to represent matriachal laws.
Also said to be a euphemism for the Erinyes, used to divert their wrath.
Originally the two trinities were distinct.
- Also called the Semnae, Holy-ones.
Source: Monaghan BGH/101; Graves GMv1/122.
Worked on file: July 10, 17,1990; July 1, August 6, 1991; April
17, August 21, 1993; May 1995.
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