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Venus, Epitome-of-Grace-and-Charm.
Alternate meaning: Love.
[to Whom the twenty-seventh day of November, day 331, is dedicated]

Geography/Culture: Italy: Early Italian, Roman. In Roman cities the temple of Venus should stand outside the pomoerium at the harbour.
Linguistic Note: The root found in the Norse vanir, is the same as that of Latin venustus, charming, graceful. Related English words: win, winsome, wont, wean, wish, venerate, venereal, venom, venial, venison. IndoEuropean *wenos, desire, from base *wen-, to strive for, attain
Description: Originally Goddess of growth, tilled fields, flower and kitchen gardens; delighting and delightful Spirit of the beauty of orderly nature.
When influenced by Greek Aphrodite, {Froth-of-Replication}, Venus, Epitome-of-Grace-and-Charm, became Goddess of sexual love, human passion, procreation and the sea; Matron of lovers, especially of young flirtacious lovers.
Invocations, Pleas, Hymns and Other Homage to HER: Venus.
To Whom Sacred: white-heather (protection against acts of passion); apples; quince; wild-strawberries; herbs; pine-cones; cypress-trees; bees; stones resting against tall trees (these are Her natural altars and sanctuaries); kidneys; thumb (symbol of increase); the planet Venus (named after Her paralleling the naming of it after Inanna and Ishtar, etc); the number 72; friday; star tattooed on web of skin between thumb and fore-finger; the month of April.
Iconography: Botticelli's Venus (head only)
Festival: She had a part in the Floralia April 29 -- May 03, and in the Vinalia Rustica, August 09.
Male Associate: Her consort, deliberatly paralleling Greek mythology, is Mars, God of War.

Source: Funk & Wagnall SDMFL 1155-6; Larousse NLEM 211; Monaghan, BGH 301; Vermeule GRARE 30, 35, 40, 51, 66; Walker WEMS 253.
Libitina, ----.

Linguistic Note: from Latin liber, free. Related English words: liberal, liberate, liberty, livery, deliver. From IndoEuropean root leudh-, to mount up, grow. By a false identification of Her name with libido She was sometimes considered Goddess of passion, and thus connected with the late form of Venus Who had a temple in Her grove.
Description: Goddess of death and burials; She from Whose sacred grove the wood for funeral pyres was cut; the chthonic side of the Goddess of love.
To Whom Sacred: grove.

Source: Funk & Wagnall SDMFL 1155.
Saint-Venere, Love.

Geography/Culture: Balkan.
Description: In the Balkans She is invoked as a Matron of marriage by young girls when making a wish that they might find good husbands.

Source: Graves WG 143; Walker WEMS 1044.
worked on: September, May 1995; April 1992; August 1991.
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