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Diana, Divine-Queen.
Alternate meanings: Queen-of-Light, {Queen-of-Heaven}.
[to Whom the fourth day of May, day 124, is dedicated]

Geography/Culture: Italy: Old Italian, Latium, especially Aricia. Etruria. Roman. Earliest representations in Etruria by the end of the 6th cent. It is said there was once a grove and temple to Diana on the site of St. Paul's, London, England.
Linguistic Note: feminine form of Janus (Dianus). {I have suggested Queen-of-Heaven as an alternate meaning. A fitting translation since the di- element could stand for 'Queen' and, following Graves, an(a), stands for heaven. The Queen of Heaven is a traditional title for the moon, especially the full moon, and might very well be the reason for adopting the name Diana, to signify the divinity recognized by Italian witches.} {See also long list of related English words in Partridges Origins.}
Description: Goddess of the moon, moonlight, light in general, mountains, forests, the open sky (perhaps originally also of the sun); Queen of heaven; Mistress of nature and fertility in wild animals; Guardian of women; Granter of conception; She Who presides over childbirth; Matron of those who work for others; Protectress of the outcast; She Who is invoked as three-formed (in reference to the moon's phases).
In the middle ages She became inseparably associated with Witchcraft.
To Whom Sacred: wormwort, also known as dian's bud (ie. Diana's bud, artemisia absinthium, was used for its medicinal and magical virtues, wormwort cured love-blindness, or the madness of love -- good for wearing on a first date, but wormwort roots under the pillow brought your lover into your dreams); oak-grove (originally She was worshipped only in open-air sanctuaries); the Golden Bough (mistletoe); hunting dogs; the Mirror of Diana (the Lake Nemi); the metal silver (symbol of the light of the moon); sickle of gold; (originally) human sacrifice; ritual hair-washing by women; torches.
Festival: 13 August, the dedication day of Her temple on the Aventine and a convention for the full moon of the hot season.
Male Associate: Her priest Virbius, also called Rex-Nemorensis, King-of-the-Grove.

Source: Encyc Brit v8 165Qa; v16 955c; v19 369c; v28 109d; NLEM 209-10, 294; Shipley DEE 213, 732-733.

Compiler's note: {I have noted the frog as sacred to Aradia, this may be in mistake for Diana -- the reference is in Leland AGW. It seems of interest that the frog is sacred to Egyptian Heket, Who may have been the origin of Hecate, , Who (in turn) is closely associated with Diana, Divine-Queen. Surely there is some tale of frogs worshipping a log called Diana? Anyway, frogs would very likely spawn by the millions in Her lake.}

Aradia, ----.

Geography/Culture: Western European Wicca.
Description: Goddess of Witchcraft; Queen of Witches; Queen of the fairies; She Who is associated with the concept of covens.
To Whom Sacred: willow (the word, meaning 'pliant' is related to wicker, as in wicker-basket, and to Wicca, the Craft); hawthorn; frog; cat; wand (often made of willow); the number three; the number thirteen (the ideal length in inches of the wand, the traditional number of coven members - thought to be related to a fairy concept of a year and a day, ie. a year composed of thirteen twenty-eight day months plus an extra day).
Festival: the cross-quarter days, with their traditional Celtic names.
Male Associate: Consort: TheHornedGod (he has been identified with Celtic Cerunnos, English Herne, Greek Pan, Christian Lucifer and his alternate name of Satan.
{Notes: The source of the name Aradia seems to be the book Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches written in 1899 by Charles G. Leland.
People writing about witchcraft in the late 20th century are apt to observe the Goddess is known by many, by a thousand names, ". . .to some She is known as Aradia. She is also known as Bride, Diana, Ashtoreth, Marian, Artemis and Ceridwen." (Beth HWGSW); and again ". . .the Great Mother, who was of old also called Artemis, Astarte, Melusine, Aphrodite, Diana, Brigit. . ." (quoted in Adler DDM 20). But though it may be shown that the some of the deities are related in some way, this kind of syncretism ignores the distinctive qualities of the Goddesses listed which seems to me a pity. It begins the reduction of all Goddesses into one Goddess losing thereby Her Multiplicity and Changefulness which is of Her essence and such an important alternative to the one God.}

Source: Beth HWGSW 33; Adler DDM 54; Leland AGW.
Lucifera, Giver-of-Light.

Geography/Culture: Roman.
{Note: I believe I found in Aradia, the Gospel of the Witches, a reference to Diana as Lucifera -- I think as contrasted with Her consort Lucifer.}

worked on: October, May 1995; August, July 1991.
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