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Egypt - Finland

Latitudes and longitudes are specified in degrees and decimals of degrees, 1 min=.016667.

Gazetteer volume 1: Accadia - Aztec.
Gazetteer volume 2: Babylonia - Dravadian.
This file - Gazetteer volume 3: Egypt - Finland.
Gazetteer volume 4:Gaelic - Hurrian.
Gazetteer volume 5: Iberian Peninsula - Lydians.
Gazetteer volume 6: Maeonians - Rome
Gazetteer volume 7: Samos - Zorastian.
Mediterranean (Greece) Supplement.
African Supplement.

Athyr (var. Westernised Hathor); Opet (var. Apet).

Egyptian, of Egypt.

Eleusian, of Eleusis.

Eleusis. A city in Attica. It contains the remains of a sanctuary to Dememter. The fig was bestowed by Demeter on the Eleusinians.

Elis. A District in Peloponnesus. Goddesses worshipped in Elis: Arethus (also in Syracuse and Ortygia). Tyche

Elis, city in Elis.

Ephesus. Ancient Greek city in Lydia, Asia Minor (originally called Arsinoeia) now, near the mouth of the Cayster (var. Caystrus) River, though originally a sea-port. Traditionally founded by the Ionians about 1050. It was the seat of Artemis of the Ephesisans, whose worship was founded in an open grove, possibly on the site of a native shrine, with an original altar and cult statue. Much in Her worship was non-Greek. In about 550 a great temple (the largest Greek temple known) was erected there to Artemis, called the Artemision (var. Artesium). It was burnt and re-erected at least twice and was finally destroyed in 262 AD. Some of Her temple servants were called Essenes, a term also used for royal bees. The name of the city may be derived from a word related to the Hittite Apusa, meaning bee. The bee (and the stag) were sacred to Artemis in Ephesus.

Epidarus. A city in Argolis, Peloponnesus. 570: images of Auxesia and Damia (in kneeling posture) abducted from Epidaurus by the Aeginetans.

Erech. A town in Sumer. NLEM.

Eridu. A town which marked the southern limits of Sumer. A neo-Babylonian text from Eridu says that Marduk was helped in the work of creating mankind by Aruru. Source: NLEM.

Eteocretan, a non-Greek people absorbed on [their?] entry into Greece.

Etruria. Early Greek name for Western and Central Italy: Tyrsenoi. (The name was already established in Italy in the 8th. century B.C., since it was known to Hesiod). Later Greek name: Tyrrhenoi, Tyrrhenia. Roman name: Tusci, Etrusci. Contemporary English: Etruscans. Original settlers: Bronze Age tribes related to, or identical with, the pastoral Apenninic peoples of the mountainous spine of Italy, who were probably the first Indo-European-speaking peoples in the peninsula. Possibly the same as Pliny's Umbrians. First settlers of the Iron Age, the so-called Villanovans, a cremating people (the urnfield culture) with many cultural connections with northern Europe. They came to Italy by sea from the eastern mediterranean some time between 1000 and 900 BC. Possibly the same as Pliny's Pelasgians (Peoples of the Sea). The urnfield peoples came to Italy by sea and those of the Iron Age apparently not just by a short ferry trip across the Adriatic but from the eastern Mediterranean. Intimate cultural connections between the Latin urnfields and the late Bronze and early Iron Age civilizations of Crete have been convincingly demonstrated; and some connections particularly the shape and fabric of certain pots, reach even further east to Troy itself, where the people of Troy VI, contemporaries of Late Mycenaean I and II in Greece, in fact, buried the ashes of their dead in a characteristic urnfield cemetery. A sudden profound change in the culture of Etruria in the first decades of the 7th. century can best be explained by a new migration of peoples from the east. Possibly Pliny's Lydians. The language spoken and written in historic times is recognized as connected with other eastern Mediterranean languages of a non-Indo-European, pre-Hellenic character. It could have been the original tongue of the primitive peoples of Italy, one of a family of pre-Indo-European Mediterranean languages. It could also have been introduced to Etruria by the Villanovans. Etruscan language first written in Italy about the middle of the 7th. century B.C. (found in tombs). An archaic alphabet which makes use of the Phoenician consonants plus the five vowels of Greek and later European alphabets. Indo-European languages appeared in Asia Minor (with the Hittites) and in Greece during the Bronze Age, and probably a first wave of Indo-European languages came to Italy then, too. But there is evidence that some of the Iron Age cremating peoples of the urnfield culture spoke Indo-European tongues; Celtic, for example, seems to have been introduced into Spain by an urnfield people, as was Venetic to northeastern Italy. In view of the enormous number of urnfields in the late Bronze and early Iron Ages, and the wide range of countries they cover, it cannot be that their peoples were all of one race or that they all spoke one language or even a single family of languages. Goddesses worshipped in Etruria: [Acca-Larentia, > Rome] Aritimi (var. Artumnes) Cilens; Culsu (a Vanth); Elinai; Feronia of Vulci, Capena; Hera of Caere; Hostia of Sutrium; Juno Curritis of Falerii; Juno Regina of Veii; Mera (var. Menarva, Meneruva, Menrva); Minerva Capta of Falerii; Munthu; Nortia of Volsinii; Phersiphnai; Semla; Thalna, (possibly an aspest of Turan); Turan; Uni (var. - or perhaps form of possesive - Unial, of Pyrgi [and Caere?]; Vanths; Vegoia; Voltumna.

Etrusci. Roman name for the Etruscans.

Etruscans, contemporary English name for the people of Etruria.

Euboea. A group of foot-hills in Argolis where a great temple to Hera was situated, more or less between Argos, Tirys and Mycenae, called the Heraion or Heraeum. It was a most important center of Hera worship, and in all probability earliest site of civilized life the the coutry inhabited by the Argive people. There are pre-Mycenaean remains at the Heraion. The remains have parallels with the two lowest levels of Troy, i.e. 2nd millenium. It was a joint sanctuary for Mycenae and Argos. There were kept the tablets recording priestesses names, which served as a chronological standard for a large area. The sanctuary was a health resort, especially for women. 423: the Temple burnt down and rebuilt. A great statue of Hera, by Polyclitus - 5th c., was erected in the new Heraion, twenty-six feet of ivory and gold. She was seated on a elaborate throne, wore a crown adorned with the Graces and the Seasons, in Her left hand a sceptre surmounted by a cuckoo, in Her right a pomegranate.

Euboea, Island.

Euphrates. A river, in southwestern Asia, flowing some 2,235 miles from east central Turkey, through northeastern Syria, to the Tigris River with which it forms the Shatt-al-Arab. [Latin Euphrates (with a dash above a), from Greek Euphrates (with a dash above 2nd e), from Avestan huperethwa (with both e as shwa characters), "good to cross over"] AHDEL. See also Mesopotamia.

Falerii, A city in Etruria. Juno Curritis was the chief deity; Minerva Capta was also worshipped there. A statue of Juno Curritis was apparently brought to Rome after the destruction of Falerii in 241 BC, and the exiled Minerva Capta had a temple in Rome on the Caelian. Both Goddesses have Italic names, since Falerii, though it considered itself an Etruscan city, spoke an Indo-European language closely related to Latin.

Finno-Ugric. The name applied to the western branch of the Uraic family of languages spoken in eastern Europe as far as the easternmost parts of European Russia. Hungarian is the most widely spoken of them, Finnish second, Morduinian third, and Estonian fourth. It is generally assumed that the forebears of the present day Hungarians left their congeners in the Ural region about 1000, and eventually settled in Pannoia (Hungary azov 1968) at the end of the ninth century. Goddesses worshipped by some Finno-Ugric speaking people: Vete-Ema.

Finland. Pre-historic. Probably inhabited by nomadic Lapps. Definitive history starts about 100 AD, when the ancestors of the present people began to arrive as migrants from the shores of the Baltic. They had recieved strong cultural influences from their Indo-European neighbours. The Kalevala is the national epic of Finland.

Fuji, also Fujisan, Fujiyama. The sacred mountain of Japan in south central Honshu (the main island). An extinct volcano. The highest peak in the country at 12,389 feet. Also the name of a relatively nearby river, and town. See also Japan. Goddesses: Fuji (Sengen-Sama). Source: Rand McNally. AHDEL.

next: Gaelic - Hurrian

worked on: August 1, 1991; April 18, 1992; April 26, 1992.