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Iberian Penninsula - Lydians

Latitudes and longitudes are specified in degrees and decimals of degrees, 1 min=.016667.

Gazetteer volume 1: Accadia - Aztec.
Gazetteer volume 2: Babylonia - Dravadian.
Gazetteer volume 3: Egypt - Finland.
Gazetteer volume 4: Gaelic - Hurrian.
This File - Gazetteer volume 5: Iberian Peninsula - Lydians.
Gazetteer volume 6: Maeonians - Rome
Gazetteer volume 7: Samos - Zorastian.
Mediterranean (Greece) Supplement.
African Supplement.

Iberian Peninsula, q.v. Celts.

Ilium, alternate name for Troy (q.v.).

India, q.v. Hindustan.


Ionia, ancient district in Asia-Minor covering a narrow strip of land along the Aegean Sea and including the islands of Samos and Chios, as well as many other Aegean islands. 1000: region settled by Attic Greeks fleeing invading Dorians. 699-600: Ionia invaded by Cimmerians, later by Lydians. Goddesses of Ionia: Amalthea and Io worshipped.

Ionian, civilization named after Ionia.



Irish, of or from Ireland.

Worshipped Goddesses:
Italy, qv. Etruria, Roman Empire, Celts. Italy, Pre-historic - Neolithic remains have been found in the Peninsula and the islands. The Ligurians (of whom there is written evidence) may correspond to the Mediterranean people of the Neolithic period who seem to have lived, in most parts of Italy, in pre-historic times. They were akin to the Siculii who inhabited parts of Sicily at a later date. The beginning of the Age of Copper may have been due to an influx of Indo-European speaking people (q.v. 28, Archeology; Man, pre-historic races of; neolithic period). The Iron Age is represented by the Villanovans (q.v.). Greece colonized Sicily (traditional date 735) displacing earlier Phoenician trading posts. Other Greek colonies were establied in southern Italy which became known as Magna Graecia (q.v. 28). Phoenician traders reached Sardinian in the 8th cent. and the Phoenician colony of Carthage inherited their trading posts on the island. In the 6th cent. the Carthagians gained possession of the south coast of Sicily (q.v. 28 Carthage; Etruria; Phoencia). By the mid-7th cent. the ethnic pattern had achieved a certain stability. In the northwest were the Ligues; in Venetia, the Veneti, an Illyrian people. Between the two groups were the Umbrians, representatives of the Osco-Umbrian branch of the Italic-speaking peoples; they extended from north of the Po River down to the Arno. The Etruscans lived between the Arno and the Tiber. East and south of the Tiber, we find the Sabines, who spoke a language belonging to the Sabellian branch of the Italic subfamily, and then the Latins, chief repesentatives of the Latinian branch. Around the Apennine region of the Abruzzi were other Sabellian peoples, among whom the Samnites played a leading role. From southern Latium to the end of the peninsula lived other Osco-Umbrian and Sabellian speaking peoples Volsci, Aurunci, Campanians, Lucanians, and Bruttii. The Iapyges (Iapygii or Iapygians), another Illyrian people, inhabited southeastern Italy. The coasts of southern Italy and Sicily were populated by Greek colonies. The Phoenicians and later the Carthaginians, had settled on the southwest coast of Sicily, while the aboriginal Sicani and the Siculi still held the central part of the island. The predominant civilizations of the 7th cent. were Greek and Etruscan. The Siceliots and Italiotes, as the descendants of the Greek colonizers in Sicily and Magna Graecia were called establised city-states. The expansion of the Etruscans in the 7th cent. caused disagreemens with bother the Greeks and the Latins. The latter united to fight them, and between the end of the 6th cent. and the middle of the 5th cent., Etruscany supremacy declined. The Italic-speaking peoples then united against the Greeks. In the 5th cent. Gauls descended from beyond the Alps, conquered the Etruscan cities in the Po Valley, and then penetrated central Italy (q.v. 28 Celtic peoples; Gaul). Toward the end of the 4th cent. Rome began to predominate.

Jain, a person or people who believe in Jainism. Goddesses worshipped by the Jains: Ambika; Prajnaparamita.

Jainism, a religion of Hindustan followed mostly in the northwest region, closely resembling Buddhism, being a reaction contemporary with it in the 6th cent. to the precedent Brahmanism. It condemned the practise of killing animals (even insects), which was demanded by the Brahmanic sacrifice.

Japan. [probably from Malay Japang, from Chinese jih4-pen3, "(Land of the) Rising Sun".] Also called Nippon (NEP-PON), [short for Nippon-koku, "Land of the origin of the sun": ni, nichi, the sun + pon, also hon, origin + koku, land] by the Japanese. A country of Asia, occupying an archipelago of 142,706 square miles off the northeastern coast of the continent and comprising the four Main islands of Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu, with numerous smaller islands. See also Fuji, and Ainu. Source: AHDEL. The religions are Shinto and Buddhism. Goddesses worshipped by the Japanese. Amaterasu-Omikami.

Japanese. Of or pertaining to Japan, or to the people, language, or culture of Japan. 1. A nativce or inhabitant of Japan. 2. The language of Japan, having no proved affinities to any other language. Source: AHDEL.

Kastaglia, the spring of Kastaglia, which is in or near Delphi which is perhaps the spring of the Castalides Muse-goddesses-of-the-spring-Castalia.

Kish. A town in Akkadia.

Knossos (var. Cnossus) capitol city of ancient Crete.

Keltoi, Greek word for the Celts, having received it orally from the native pronunciation.

Kyushu. The furthest south and west island of the four main islands which comprise Japan. City: Nagasaki.

Kutha. A town in Akkadia.

Laconia, the most powerful district in southest Peloponnesus. Mount Taygete joins it to the district of Messenia.

Lagash. A town in Sumer. NLEM.

Larsa. A town in Sumer. NLEM.


Lamaism, q.v. Tibet. Latin. Of Latium. A member of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken in Latium, was extended with Roman rule over much of ancient Europe. It is the source from which the Romance languages (chiefly French, Italian, Portuguese, Rumanian and Spanish) are derived. The other Indo-European languages and families, such as Sanskrit, Persian, Slavic, Greek, Germanic, Albanian and Armenian are shown to be cousins in varying degree by systematic similarities of vocabulary and structure.

Latium, (phonetic L*-$Y-M. Ital. Lazio), ancient Latium occupied an area between the Tiber and the Alban Hills. Human habitation began about 1150; the Latins, from whom the region received its name, appeared during the 10th cent. and mixed with the previous settlers. They were builders of cities, one of which was Rome q.v.) which from an early date, combined in a succession of loose federations or "leagues", at first quasi-religious. Lycao,

Lydia, district in Asia-Minor. Original inhabitants called Maeonians, were subdubed by Lydians.

Lydians, a Carian tribe who subdubed the original inhabitants of Lydia. Peak period of civilization 716-546. Worshipped Anaetis [?].
Lydians A sudden profound change in the culture of Etruria in the first decades of the 7th. century can best be explained by a new migration of peoples from the east. Possibly Pliny's Lydians. Irish - Worshipped Niamh. Should make a cross-reference from Celts

worked on: worked on: August 1, 1991; April 18, 26, 1992.