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GAZETTEER,Volume 7:
Samos - Zorastian

Latitudes and longitudes are specified in degrees and decimals of degrees, 1 min=.016667.

Gazetteer volume 1: Accadia - Aztec.
Gazetteer volume 2: Babylonia - Dravadian.
Gazetteer volume 3: Egypt - Finland.
Gazetteer volume 4: Gaelic - Hurrian.
Gazetteer volume 5: Iberian Peninsula - Lydians.
Gazetteer volume 6: Maeonians - Rome
This File - Gazetteer volume 7: Samos - Zorastian.
Mediterranean (Greece) Supplement.
African Supplement.

Samos>, Island, neighbouring Ephesus, Asia Minor. Has a temple to Hera.

Saronic Gulf, between Attica and Argolis.

Saxon, (German Sachsen), a teutonic tribe composed of four major groups: Westphalians, Angrarians (Engerns), Eastphalians and Nordalbingians (azov 1968, in Holstein). In the 2nd cent. AD they were in the southern part of the Cimbrician peninsula (azov 1968, supposedly Schleswig). They advanced from there during the 3rd and 4th cents. AD beyond the Elbe and Weser rivers. Some Saxons together with the Angles, after a long period of marauding, migrated to England in the 5th and 6th cents. AD. The remaining Old Saxons (as those on the continent were called), expanded in the meantime throughout a considerable part of north-westerm Germany. The Elbe and Saale rivers were the borders of their eastward extension, in the south they bordered on the Hessians and Franks, and in the west the Rhine north of the Lippe formed the border. Only along the coast of the North Sea the Friesians maintained themselves a separate tribe. c. 804 AD they were forced to accept Christianity.

Scandinavia (Scandinavian Peninsula, Rand McNally 83: 62 north by 14 east.) Ety: from German Skandinauja (unattested), name of southernmost part of Sweden. 1. The peninsula in northwestern Europe occupied by Norway and Sweden. 2. The northwestern European countries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. 3. These countries and Iceland considered as a linguistic and cultural unit. 4. Broadly, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, Finland, and the Faeroe Islands. Goddesses: Alys; Amma; Erda (see also Norse.)

Selinus, Italy.

Semitic, Goddesses worshipped by Semitic peoples: [Sumerian? Mesopotamian?]: Agasaya (asp. Ishtar).

Shikoku. One of the four islands comprising Japan[?\gds\gazeteer\gazeteer.4] separated from the main island Honshu to the west by an inland sea.

Shinto. Also Shintoism. The aboriginal religion of Japan, marked by the veneration of nature spirits and of ancestors. [Japanese shinto (with a dash above the o), "the way of the gods": shin, god(s), from Chinese (Mandarin) shn2 + to (with a dash above the o), for do (with a dash above the o), way, from Chinese (Mandarin) tao4.]

Sicily, Island at the toe of Italy.

Sippar. A town in Akkadia. Goddess: A, Aja, Aya, consort sun-god Shamash.

Spain, pre-Christian Goddesses Abunciada.

Spanish, of Spain.

Sparta, city-state of Laconia. Traditionally founded by Lacedaemon, son of Zeus and Taygete. It had a temple to Artemis Orthia (dated 2nd cent.) with an outdoor altar. Music, gymnastics and the flogging ordeal took place in the theatre in front of it. the temple stands on foundations of a c. 6th cent. temple --- close by are the remains of a 9th or even 10th cent. temple. Sparta also contains a sanctuary of Athena Chalkioikos (chi-alpha-lambda-kappa-iota-omicron-iota-kappa-omicron-sigma) `Of-the-brazen-house'.

Sporades Islands, (for now q.v. Dorian)

Sudanese, worshipped Anuket.

Sumer. An ancient country of southern Mesopotamia in a region now part of southern Iraq. AHDEL. It flourished from the beginning of the third millenium BCE. It was situated around the upper end of the Persian Gulf, which in those days probably extended further inland than today (1992). NLEM. Contemporary with, and lying to the immediate north of Sumer was the land of Akkad. Towns: Eridu, Nippur, Lagash, Umma, Erech, Larsa, Ur. Apparently Mari was also in Sumer.

Sumerian, adj. Of or pertaining to ancient Sumer, its people, culture or language. -n. 1. A member of an ancient Babylonian people, probably of non-Semitic origin, who established one of the earliest historic civilizations in Sumer in the fourth millenium BCE. 2. The unclassified language used by these people used by these people preserved in cuneiform on clay tablets. AHDEL. The Sumerians had probably come from central Asia or the Siberian Steppes. NLEM. Goddesses worshipped in Sumer: Lilith (var. Ardat-Lili); Abtagigi (asp. Ishtar); Abusu (asp. Ishtar); Allatu (var. Allatum, asp. Ereshkigal); Anna-nin (var. Nanna); Aruru; [Sumerian?]: Amadubad (asp. Aruru).

Sutrium, city in Etruria. Patron Deity the Goddess Hostia.

Syracuse, city on the south east coast of Sicily. (Italian Siracusa: ancient Syracusae). Founded in 734 by Greeks from Corinth. Contains, c. 450, a Temple dedicated to Minerva. A spring near the shore is called "The fountain of Arethusa".

Syria, Earliest major settlers were Semitic Amorites who entered c. mid 3rd millenium. (see Assyria - Old Assyrian Empire). The Canaanites belonged to the same migration as the Amorites. (see Canaanites; Oriental Archaeology Syria), (see Canaanites and Phoenicia). Arameans also settled the land with Damascus as their capitol. (see Arameans; Aramaic language), (see Lebanon; Middle east; Turkey; United Arab Republic). Goddesses worshipped in Syria: Atergatis; Asherah (var. Asherat, alt. Elath); Astarte; Anath.

Syrian(s), of Syrian.

Taygete, Mount

Teutonic, of the Teutons. (Among others) Saxons, Friesans, Angles.

Teutons, an ethnic group composed of the Germanic peoples of Europe, that is a basic stock of the peoples of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Northern Italy, north and central France, and England.

Thebes, Boeotia. See also Thebes, Upper Egypt. The leading city of Boeotia in historical times. Citadel anciently called Cadmea after Cadmus. In the ruins of the Mycenaean palace at Thebes - founded according to legend in the remotest past by the exiled Phoenician prince Cadmus, have been found cylindar seals of Mesopotamian origin and Late Bronze Age date. Although scholars cannot accept the legend that it was Cadmus who introduced the alphabet into Greece, the discovery that the stronghold associated with the name of Cadmus had direct commercial relations with the Semitic East before 1250 BC is of exceptional interest. In 335 Thebes was completely destroyed, was restored in 315 but never again played a prominent part in history. Goddesses associated with Thebes, Boeotia: Antiope Dirce (a river of Her name passes by Thebes) Alcmene

Thebes, Upper Egypt. (Now known as Luxor. See map of Egypt. Greek name for the ancient capital of Upper Egypt. Deities of Thebes, Egypt: Mut (consort: Ammon (var. Ammon-Re) had a temple there. Hat-Hor presided over the western cliffs at Thebes.

Thermopylae. The place [city?] where Demeter had a temple administered by Amphictyons.

Thessaly. A district in northern Greece between Macedonia and the more Hellenic countries of the south, with Epirus to the west, and borders on the Aegean Sea. Thessalians descended into the district from Epirus, causing the expulsion of the Boeotians from Arne and their settlement in the country subsequently called Boeotia. Another wave of the same tide drove southward the Dorians whose migrations changed the face of Peloponnesus.

Thrace. Anciently bounded on the North by the Danube, the East by the Black Sea, the West by Macedonia and south by the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara. Goddesses Perhaps Phyllis

Thera. (for now q.v. Dorian)

Tibet. An independent state in central Asia. Its indigenous religion was called Bon, a form of Shamanism. It was polytheistic and abounded in demon worship, sorcery and magic (it included human sacrifice). Some scholars believe it a decadent form of Chinese Taoism. In the 7th cent. Buddhism (known as Lamaism in Tibet) was introduced by the two favorite wives of the king, both devout Buddhist princesses from China and Nepal. They converted the king to their faith which quickly spread throughout the land. The Bon Shamans opposed the faith which (azov 1968, still) retains elements of the Bon religion. Chen-Re-Zi (Avalokitesvara), whose consort is Tara, is the patron Deity of Tibet. Goddesses of Tibet: Tara; Vajravarahi.

Tibetian(s), of Tibet. The people belong to the Mongolian people of Central Asia. Their language belongs to the Indo-Chinese family and is similar to Burmese.

Tibetian Buddhism, q.v. Tibet.

Tigris. A river of southwestern Asia, rising in the Taurus Moutains of Turkey and flowing about 1,150 miles generally southeast to join the Euphrates in southern Iraq and form the Shatt-al-Arab. AHDEL.

Troezene, city or town in Argolis. Has an altar dedicated to a triad of Themides (i.e. Themis).

Troy (Ilium), city in Asia Minor (sacked by the Achaens). Nine levels excavated. 1300:Troy VI - destroyed by earthquake, but rebuilt. 1260:Troy VIIa - burning associated with successful assault.

Trysenoi, Early Greek (799-700 i.e. 8th c.) name for central and western Italy.

Tyrrhenoi, Late Greek name for western and central Etruria.

Tusci, Roman name for the Etruscans.

Ugarit, Ancient Canaanite city, usually called Ras Shamra in connection with its oldest archeological levels, on the north Phoenician coast. Its hey-day was in the late Bronze Age c. 1600-1700. The people of Ugarit made the `Tyrrian purple' dye from murex fish shells. They worshipped Ba'al and El. Goddesses worshipped in Ugarit: Anath of Syria.

Umbrians The bronze age settlers of Etrutria. they were related to or identical with the pastoral Apenninic peoples of the mountainous spine of Italy, referred to as Umbrians by Pliny.

Umma. A town in Sumer. NLEM.

Ur. A town in Sumer, southern Mesopotamia. (azov 1968 called Tell el-Mugayyar, Iraq). Anciently it stood on the bank of the Euphrates. There is evidence of occupation over at least 5000 years up to c. 539. Its greatest days occurred c. 3100-1750 (3rd and early 2nd millenium). Nanna was the moon God of Ur.

Vedic, India. Vedic Goddesses: Aditi.

Veii, a city in Etruria. Juno Regina was the Great Goddess of Veii, Her priesthood there was hereditary. Her image was brought to Rome from Her temple there when Veii was destroyed in 394, and a new temple, built to house it on the Aventine, was dedicated in 392 BC.

Villanovans, first iron-age settlers in Italy [and/or Etruria], a cremating people of the urnfield culture with many cultural connections with northern Europe. (q.v. 28 Hallstatt Epoch). They came to Italy by sea from the Eastern Mediterranean some time between 1000 and 900. Possibly they were the same as Pliny's Pelasgians (Peoples of the Sea). They inhabited northern Italy. They may have been the ancestors of the Umbrians, and represented a second great invasion of Italic speaking people from north of the Alps, or they may have been Etruscans.

Volsinii, an Etruscan city. (Azov 1968, the city of Orvieto is supposed to occupy the same site). The patron Deity of Volsinii was the Goddess Nortia.

Vulci, city in Etruria in the territory of Capena where Feronia had a sacred grove. The inhabitants were Indo-European-speaking "Etruscans".

Wales. (located: Rand & McNally 83 52.12 north by 3.40 west. Linguistic note: Wales), and its derivative Welsh are words of Teutonic origin from the Anglo-Saxon meaning `Strangers'. The population of Wales are descended from a Celtic people. The country in the late 20th century is a principality of the United Kingdom in the west of England. It includes the island of Anglesey off the northwestern coast (53 35 n x 4 28 w) Goddesses: Arianrhod; Blodeuwedd Branwen; Olwen. In the area of Snowdon mountain: Penelope.

Welsh, of or from Wales.

Ziria.
(Azov 1968, probably the current) name for mount Cyllene in Arcadia, Peloponnesus.

Zorastian.
Goddesses worshipped by Zorastianism. Anahita.


worked on: April 1996; August 1, 1991; April 18, 26, 1992.