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GAZETTEER,Volume 6:
Maeonians - Rome

Latitudes and longitudes are specified in degrees and decimals of degrees, 1 min=.016667.

Gazetteer volume 1: Accadia - Aztec.
Gazetteer volume 2: Babylonia - Dravadian.
Gazetteer volume 3: Egypt - Finland.
Gazetteer volume 4: Gaelic - Hurrian.
Gazetteer volume 5: Iberian Peninsula - Lydians.
This File - Gazetteer volume 6: Maeonians - Rome
Gazetteer volume 7: Samos - Zorastian.
Mediterranean (Greece) Supplement.
African Supplement.

Maeonians, original inhabitants of Lydia.

Maoris, inhabitants of New Zealand. Goddesses worshipped by the Maoris: Papa.

Mari. A town in Sumer, Mesopotamia. Goddesses: Ishtar had a temple there. An alabastar statue from Her temple is dated c. 2500 BCE. Source: NLEM.

Massalia, for now q.v. Celts.

Mayan.

Megara, (for now q.v. Dorian).

Megalopolis, city. See Arcadia

Melos, (for now q.v. Dorian)

Mesopotamia. The ancient country between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers. [Latin, from Greek Mesopotamia (Khora (with dash above o, dot above r)), "the (land) between (two) rivers": mesos, middle + potamos, river]. --Mesopotamian, adj. & n. Horned head-dresses were originally a characteristically Mesopotamian emblem of divinity. Goddesses worshipped in Mesopotamia: Ishtar (var(s). Ashdar, Astar).

Messinia, a district in south-west Peloponnesus.

Minoan Civilization, alternate name for Cretan civilization, named after King Minos. q.v. Crete.

Minyae, a people of Boeotia, perhaps the aborigines.

Morea, alternate name for Peloponnesus, because its outline somewhat resembles a mulberry leaf.

Mycenae. A town in Argolis, Peloponnesus. First settlements made c. 4000. It was founded by non-Greeks c. 2900. Perseus was the legendary founder and first king. Bronze Age culture was adopted c. 2000. Towns with palaces appear only after 1700 under the influence of Crete and Asia Minor. Wealth was amassed by plunder and piracy causing the rise of a powerful aristocracy. These people became known as the Mycenaeans. 1500: the nucleus of the Mycenae palace was constructed. 1299-1200 The famous Lioness (commonly called Lion) Gate, and the fortification of Tiryns and Athens were probably constructed. About 1400 the Mycenaeans sacked Knossos bringing the Cretan civilization to an end. 1400-1200 was the peak of the Mycenaean Age, during which time they established settlements in Asia Minor and Cyprus. About 2000 or 1150 the civilization was wiped out by invaders from the north west with the technology of iron. In 1100 it was re-occupied by Dorians, but destroyed again by Argives c. 470. It revived but by the 2nd cent. AD it was in ruins and a historic site.

Mycenaean, of or from Mycenae. Term synonymous with Late Helladic period. Name for the people who lived at Mycenae and their civilization. The term Mycenaean is also synonymous with Minoan civilization. q.v. Crete. [Some source said they were also known at Argives and Danii. More likely these were the Argives from the city[-state?] of Argos].

Navajo, North American Indians, and their culture.

New Zealand. The land occupied by the Maoris.

Nimrud, city in Assyria.

Nineveh. A capitol City of Assyria, the ruins of which are located on the Tigris River, opposite Mosul. Neolithic pottery found there from the first half of the 5th millenium BCE. The library of Ashurbanipal found there contains tablets of religious texts which date from the seveth century BCE, and some pieces which date to 1000 BCE. The works must be based on much older religious texts. Sources: AHDEL; NLEM.

Nippur. A town which marked the northern limits of Sumer. The word Im-khar-sag, `Storm-mountain', (the staged tower or sacred edifice at Nippur), seems to be related to the name of the Goddess Nin-Kharsag. Goddesses: Nin-Lil. Source: NLEM.

Noricum, azov 1968, roughly equivalent to the provice of Styria, Austra, q.v. Celts.

Norse, (Scandinavian Peninsula, Rand McNally 83: 62 north by 14 east.) Ety: Mid. Dutch nort `North'. 1. Of or pertaining to ancient Scandinavia, its people, or their language. 2. a. Of or pertaining to West Scandinavia (Norway, Iceland, and the Faroe Islands) or the languages of its inhabitants. b. Of or pertaining to Norway, its people, or their language. n. pl. Norse. 1. a. The people of Scandinavia; the Scandinavians. b. the people of West Scandinavia; the West Scandinavians; especially, the Norwegians. c. The ancient Norwegians. 2. The Scandinavian or North Germanic branch of Germanic languages; especially, Norwegian. 3. Any of the West Scandinavian langauges or dialects. Goddesses: Authumla. (poss. Angerona, ( < Roman < Etruscan)].

Oeta, Mount.

Ortygia, an island or peninsula off Sicily and/or a city. Arethus(a) worshipped.

Palestinian, Goddesses worshipped by Palestinians: Asherah (var. Asherat, - alt. Elath of Syria); Astarte.

Paphlagonians, a people from a Roman province on the Black Sea.

Parnassus, Mount.

Patras. A gold and ivory statue of Artemis Laphria transferred there (probably together with Her rituals) from Calydon, Aetolia.

Pelasgians, "People of the Sea", non-Greek population absorbed on their arrival in Greece. May have had their home in Peloponnesus. The Villanovans, first iron-age settlers in Etruria, were a cremating people of the urnfield culture. They came to Italy by sea from the Eastern Mediterranean some time between 1000 and 900. They had many cultural connections with northern Europe, and may have been the same as Pliny's Pelasgians.

Peloponnesus, var. Peloponnese. (Gr. Pelos' Island). The name the large peninsula of southern Greece, sometimes known as the Morea, because its outline resembles that of a mulberry leaf. It is attached to the mainland by the slender Isthmus of Corinth, which has the Corinthian Gulf on the west and the Saronic Gulf on the east. The chief divisions of the country in ancient times were: Achaia, to the north; Arcadia, central; Argolis, to the northeast; Elis, to the west; Messenia, to the southwest; Laconia, to the south-east.

Persia, Goddesses worshipped in Persia: Anahita (Zorastian).

Perugia, city in Etruria.

Phoenicia.

Phoenician(s), of Phoenecia.

Phryge, of or from, Phrygia.

Phrygia phonetic: FRY'JY-. The name applied to the country of the Phryges or Phrygians in Asia Minor, occupying the central plateau west of the Halys and the interior desert, but otherwise ill-defined since the country varied much at different times. The kingdom, established earlier than 800 spread over Lydia, Cappadocia and Lycaonia as well as Phrygia. Ethnologically the Phrygians seem to have been closely related to the Armenians. Both were of Indo-Germanic stock. Like Armenian, the language seems to be Iranian in its affinities. Inscriptions in its peculiar alphabet have been found in Lemnos and in Egypt. The Phrygians were largely a rural population and their religion was a nature worship. The great divinity was Ma, the Great Mother, also called Cybele which is thought to have meant "The-mountain-Goddess". Her seats were Dindymus, Sipylus, and Ida, and She was the Goddess of vegetation and of all life and generation.

Phrygian of or from Phrygia.

Phthiosis, a district in east central Greece, south of Thessaly. (Perhaps the same as Acheae Phthiosis, said to have been the original home of the Acheaens.) It contained a smaller district Hellas, which eventually gave its name to the whole of the Greek peninsula, the people being known as Hellenes. Perhaps the Acheaans were the prime ancestors of the Hellenes.

Polynesia. See New Zealand, Hawaii.

Pyrgi, sanctuary on the coast near Cerveteri, Etruria, where there was a great temple to Uni (var. Unial).

Pteria, in the state of Hatti, Asia Minor. In its last years the Hittite city of Hattusus was known as Pteria which was sacked by Lydians in 547.

Ras Shamra, name for the oldest levels of the city of Ugarit on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria.

Rhamnus. City in Attica in which have been found the remains of two temples, the larger to Nemesis, the smaller probably to Themis, of which Goddess a fine statue was discovered in its ruins.

Rhodes, Island off the coast of mountainous Caria.

Roman, of or from Rome.

Goddesses worshipped by the Romans:

Rome, Roma. (Late 20th century location: 41 52 n x 12 37 e). City in district of Latium (Italy azov 1983) which rose from an agglomeration of several villages within a single enclosure. The earliest nucleus on the Palatine hill was probably settled (long before its traditional foundation by Romulus in 753) from the Latin city Alba Longa, on the slopes of the Alban hills, which exercised leadership in an early "league of 30 cities", [instituted in the 8th cent.? see below]. As late as the 7th cent. Alba Longa was the chief town and traditionally supposed the Mother of Rome.) Traditionally too, the Trojan hero Aeneas, son of Venus [sic] was taken to Latium, where his son Julius (Ascanius) became the progenitor of the gens Julia. Julius was the ancestor of Rhea Silvia, who with Mars, parented Romulus and Remus. It is also traditional that of the three tribes who made up the original population, the Etruscan Luceres were one. In return for support offered by their chief, Caelius (Coeles) they were admitted to the city, and granted the hill which bears his name (Caelian). Because of its strategic location on the northern frontier of Latium, (with Etruria on the opposite bank of the Tiber) Rome (Roma) gradually became the leader of Latin towns against invaders (notably the Etruscans) and by Her militancy slowly increased Her influence and power. She joined the so-called Latin league in the 8th cent. The Etruscans, who initially influenced Rome (Roma) and for a time held dominion over the Romans, were driven out of Latium at about the same time as the aristocratic republican rule was being establisheed in Rome, traditional date 509. c. 600: Alba Longa destroyed.



worked on: worked on: July 31, 1991;August 1, 1991; April 18, 1992; April 18, 1992.