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Babylonia - Dravadian

Latitudes and longitudes are specified in degrees and decimals of degrees, 1 min=.016667.
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Babylon, (ruins of the ancient city: 32 15 n x 54 23 e). Babylon: The capitol of ancient Babylonia, situated in Mesopotamia on the Euphrates river. [Latin Babylon (with a dash across top of the o), from Greek Babulon (with a dash above the o), from Akkadian Bab-ilani (with a dash above both a), "gate of the gods": bab, gate + ilani, plural of ilu, god.] AHDEL
Babylon. A town in Sumer. Babylon. A town in Akkadia.

Babylonia, An ancient empire in the lower Euphrates Valley of southwestern Asia, prominent from about 2000 to 1000 BCE. Capitol, Babylon. AHDEL. See also Assyria. Goddesses worshipped in Babylonia: Aa, Anatu; Aruru < Sumer; Tiamat.

Babylonian, adj. Of or pertaining to ancient Babylonia or Babylon, their people, culture or language. -n. 1. A native or inhabitant of ancient Babylon or Babylonia. The Semitic language of the Babylonians, a form of Akkadian. AHDEL.

Baghdad, a city in Akkadia.


A Celtic tribe, who made settlements in south eastern Britain.

Goddesses: Saint Dymphna.

Boeotia. A district of central Greece. Contains Mount Helicon, 'The Mountain of the Muses'. The Boeotian population seems to have entered the land from the north at a date probably anterior to the Dorian invasion. With the exception of the Minyae the original peoples were soon absorbed by these immigrants.
Goddesses of Boeotia: Aoide; Agave of Thebes; Antiope of Thebes; Atalanta (also worshipped in Arcadia). Bogazkoy. Contemporary name for Hattusas.

Borsippa. A town in Akkadia.

Bosphorus. Also Bosporus. Turkish Karadeniz Bogazi (K*R*D]ŻEZ BO*ZE). A narrow strait between European and Asian Turkey linking the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara.
The Goddess Chryse came from the Bosphorus.

Bosporus. See Bosphorus.

Brahmanism. The origin of the caste system in India was co-incident with the rise of Brahmanism, which emphasises karma and transmigration of souls.

Brauron. A town in Attica.

Buddhism. Introduced into Japan in the sixth century CE.

Goddesses: Wathundaye[?\cyc\p\Prthivi]

Cadmea. Citadel of Thebes, Boeotia.

Something to do with Rome. Minerva Capta has a temple there.

Caere. (Cerveteri - Roman).
City in Etruria, worshipped Uni; Hera was also worshipped there under Her own name (Caere had a large Greek population) as late as the third century [AD?].

Calydon. A city of Aetolia.
Remains of large terrace walls outside the town probably indicate the position of the Temple of Artemis-Laphria, whose gold and ivory statue was transferred to Patras, together probably with Her ritual. This included a sacrifice in which all kinds of beasts, wild and tame, were driven into a wooden pyre and consumed. 391: in the possesion of thevinc Achaeans (1st. historic mention). 371: repossessed by the Aetolians. 279: Aetolian league establishes the festival of the Soteria at Delphi in commemoration of the victory over invading Celts. 31: inhabitants removed by Augustus.
Goddesses worshipped by the Calydonians: Althaea; Artemis Laphria.

Canaanite(s). A people who settled in Palestine around 1900. Introduced middle Bronze Age culture from the Levant.

Capena. Territory in Etruria.
Goddesses: Feronia had a sacred grove there.

Caria. Ancient district of Asia Minor, bounded on the North by Lydia, West and South by the Aegean Sea, on the East by Lycia and a small part of Phrygia. Contains Gulf of Cos. Almost the whole of it is mountainous. The country was shared between the Carians and a wilder people called Caunians, probably the original inhabitants. Was absorbed into the kingdom of Lydia.

Carian. Of or from Caria. According to Heroditus the Carians were originally called Leleges, and were driven from the Aegean Islands by invading Greeks.
Goddesses worshipped: Car, subsequently in Crete.

Cappadocia. An extensive inland district of Asia Minor. Contains the middle course of the River Halys.

Celtae. Roman form of Greek Keltoi.

Celtic. Of the Celts.
British Celts, [worshiped Annis].
Irish Celts.
Romano-British: During the Roman era in Britain there was an overlap of imported Roman and native Celtic practices. The term Romano-British is used to describe the sites, artefacts and practices of the native peoples who were subjected to Roman rule, a good example being the well dedicated to the Celtic Goddess Coventina and located at Carrawburgh beside a Roman fort on Hadrian's Wall. Source: Bord SW 20
Welsh Celts .

Celts, Pre-Celtic.
A mesolithic people existed in Europe who were interpenetrated, in the 4th millenium, by Neolithic cultivators and stock raisers spreading north from the periphery of the urban civilization of the "Most Ancient East". They took possesion of the Middle Danube basin, spreading from thence, west and southwest. Another wave came from the western Mediterranean along the Atlantic coasts of Europe to the British Isles. By the end of the second millenium, a continuum of inter-related material cultures existed across Europe which was in communication with the eastern Mediterranean.
Herodotus writing mid-5th c. twice states that the Danube rose in the territory of the Celts. The evidence he supplies indicates they were widespread throughout the Iberian Peninsula and were the same people as inhabited the hinterland of Massalia. Archeological evidence shows the Upper Danube to have been their homeland, from which some spread to Spain, later to Italy and the Balkans. In the last quarter of the 5th c. they invaded northern Italy through Alpine passes. They initially settled the upper valley of the Po, then overthrew the decaying Etruscan civilization, with which they had previously traded. The homeland of these Celts was Switzerland and southern Germany. They eventually reached Sicily. In the 3rd c. they were widespread in Western and trans-Alpine Europe.
369-368: bands of Celts were serving as mercenaries in Peloponesus. A few generations later Celts invaded Macedonia some, soon after, attacked Delphi and remained in the Balkans for some time. Two tribes moved to the Dardanelles and were from there transported to Asia Minor (where they were joined by another tribe) who finally settled in Northern Phrygia, henceforward known as Galatia (named after Galatae, Greek for the Celtic invaders).

Cerveteri. Roman name for Caere, city in Etruria.

Chaldean. 1. A member of an ancient Semitic people who ruled in Babylonia. 2. The Semitic language of the Chaldeans.

Cherokee. Rand McNally 83 35 n x 83 50 e.
Ety: Cherokee tsalaki.
1. An Iroquois-speaking tribe of North American Indians, formerly inhabiting North Carolina and nothern Georgia and now settled in Oklahoma. 2. A member of this tribe. 3. The language of this tribe.

China. (Late 20th century capitol city location: 39 55 n x 116 23 e).
All chinese Goddesses Who are not otherwise specified as originating is a particular area are given the co-ordinates of the capitol city Beijing.
Goddesses from China: Tzu-Ku-Shen.

Chinese. Of or from China.

Christian. Originally a Syrian religion.
[Worshipped Anne, < Danaan].


Cnidus. City on the coast of Caria.

Comana. A city in Cappodocia. It was the home of a great Hittite power centered at Boghaz-Keni (see Pteria.
It was celebrated in ancient times as the place where the rites of Ma-Enyo, a variety of the great West Asian Nature Goddess, were celebrated with great solemnity and magnificence. It contained a sumptuous temple to Her where there were many thousands of hieroduli (temple servants).


Cos. As island off the coast of mountainous Caria.

Cretan. Of or from Crete.

Crete, Rand McNally: 35 15 n x 24 30 e.
Aegean island. Extensive Neolithic deposits. Successive deposits of a Bronze Age civilization extend over 1500 years. Q.v. Aegean Civilization.
1600: Late Bronze Age began shortly after 1600 BC with signs of destruction and cultural reorientation. A Maritime empire established at the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age reached its period of greatest prosperity
1600-1400: written records introduced, great architecture, mural paintings, superb pottery. Ancient capital Knossos. As of about
1450: Achaean forces from the mainland had overthrown the Minoan sea-king dynasty, organized the island under their own control and kept records in their own language and script.
Goddesses worshipped in Crete:
Alcmene, [ > Greece?]
Amalthusia, asp. Aphrodite
Angitia, [ > Rome?]
Antheia, variant Anthea, asp. Aphrodite
Ariadne, variant Ariagne, asp. Aphrodite,
Car, Who came from Caria.

Cyclades. A group of Aegean islands.

Cycladic. Islands in the Aegean Sea, not only the Cyclades, but also the other islands, except Crete, which is refered to as Minoan.

Mountain in Arcadia, Peloponnesus.

Cyriotes. People of Cyprus.

Cyprus. Aegean island. The island attracted Eygptians, Greeks, Phoenicians, and Assyrians. It became famous for its cult of Aphrodite.
Goddesses worshipped in Cyprus. Amathusia, asp. Aphrodite; Ay-Mari, variant Marian.


Danai. Another name for the Achaeans.

[worshipped Angerboda, asp. Yngona; Angurboda, var. Angerboda.

Danube. A river. Rose in the territory of the Celts. The name etymologically connected with Danu. Upper Danube shows evidence of having been their homeland.


Delphi. Called `the navel of the world'. A city in the Greek mainland. Flourished 700-200. The site stands on the slopes of Parnassus (home of the Muses, but q.v. Helicon).
There was there an oracular sanctuary there, originally Gaia's (who transferred it, in some traditions, to Her daughter Themis -- Who was at any rate especially honoured in Delphi) before its usurpation by Apollo in the early Iron Age. The predictions were made by an elected priestess, the Pythia, who inhaled the vapours as she sat on a tripod over the opening in the ground. Initially the oracle could be consulted only on one day in the year, early in March. Eventually monthly access was possible. The city also contained a sanctuary of Athena Pronoia (of forethought), probably the site of a Bronze Age cult.

Delphiotes. People of Delphi.

Dirce. A river running by Thebes, Boeotia.

Dorian civilization. Invaders of Greece.

Dorian. A name applied by the Greeks to one of the principal groups of Hellenic peoples, in contradistinction to Ionians and Aeolians. Practically all Peloponnesus, except Achaea and Elis, was "Dorian", together with Megara, Aegina, Crete, Melos, Thera, the Sporades Islands and the S.W. coast of Asia Minor, where Rhodes, Cos, Cnidus and (formerly) Halicarrnassus formed a "Dorian" confederacy. "Dorian" colonies, from Corinth, Megara, and the Dorian islands, occupied the southern coasts of Sicily from Syracuse to Selinus. Dorian states usually had in common the "Doric" dialect, a peculiar calendar and cycle of festivals of which the Hyacinthia and Carneia were the chief. The worship of Apollo and Heracles, though not confined to Dorians, were widely regarded as in some sense "Dorian". Dorian female dress is epitomized by Artemis, and Ionian by Artemis.
Goddesses worshipped by Dorians. Athene (variants: Athana, Athanai, Athanaia).

Doric. Of the Dorian invaders.

Doris. A small district in north Greece, between Mount Parnassus and Mount Oeta, probably not the origin of Dorians.

Dravadian. The people who inhabit southern India, and who were probably driven there by invading Aryans. They nominally acknowledge the spiritual guidance of Brahmanism, but are practically given over to the worship of local village Deities, nearly all of whom are Goddesses. Probably representing a pre-Aryan religion.

worked on: August 1995; 1990; July 31, 1991; August 1, 1991; August 3, 1991; April 18, 1992.

next: Egypt - Finland worked on: April 18, 1992.
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